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Elucidating the Mechanisms Involved in the Regulation of Innate Antiviral Responses against Respiratory Pathogens in Chickens

2021 CPRF
The research at Barjesteh Laboratory addresses the interactions between the host and the virus. This program has focused on mechanisms that are crucial turning points in shaping antiviral immune responses and the outcome of viral infections. The effective elimination of viral infections depends on the coordinated communication between different cells of the immune system. Elucidating mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between different cells of the immune system will be a critical step to reach the ultimate goal of successfully enhancing and tailoring innate responses to shape adaptive immunity. In order to define underlying mechanisms involved in the communication between different host cells, the Barjesteh team has focused on the extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from chicken tracheal cells and their immuno-regulatory functions. The protein and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of EVs released from TECs stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands or infected with the avian influenza virus (AIV) were assessed. Furthermore, several genes or pathways targeted by differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were predicted. The results highlighted the possible roles of some DE miRNAs in the induction of antiviral responses. The protein content of EVs was characterized. Bioinformatic analysis using PANTHER and STRING databases demonstrated that EVs secreted by chicken tracheal cells in response to various stimuli are enriched in protein markers involved in immune responses and cell signaling pathways. To verify the immune regulatory roles of EVs and possible communication of TECs and macrophages through EVs during viral infection, we investigated the impact of EVs released from TECs on chicken macrophage activities. We concluded that EVs contain an array of bioactive molecules, including RNAs and proteins, and, therefore, play a critical role in regulating antiviral responses. The above studies have provided a platform to understand the initiation of antiviral responses by tracheal cells and their impact on overall immune responses.
Tags :
antiviral response,innate immunity,respiratory pathogens
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