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Pathogenicity of the Canadian Delmarva (DMV/1639) Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in Layers at Different Age of Exposure to the Virus

2021 CPRF
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. IBV primarily infects respiratory tract of chickens, but it can also infect the kidney, oviduct, and gastrointestinal tract. The intensity of disease and tissue tropisms are primarily determined by the infecting IBV strains and the age of the chickens at infection. We recently isolated and characterized the Canadian IBV DMV/1639 isolate, which has been prevalent in Eastern Canadian poultry operations for the past few years. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of Canadian IBV DMV/1639 isolate to the reproductive tracts of 1-day-old and 26-week-old layer chickens. Infected young chickens showed signs of sneezing, snicking, and tracheal rales between 3 and 14 dpi. Virus shedding via oropharyngeal and cloacal routes continued up to 21- and 105-days post-infection (dpi), respectively. During necropsy at 16 weeks of age, cystic lesions of varying sizes with serous fluid accumulation were seen in the oviducts. In infected adult chickens, egg production dropped to 40% starting at 5 dpi. Gross lesions involving ovarian regression and decreased length of oviduct were observed. Microscopical investigation revealed epithelial sloughing, mononuclear cell infiltrations, and gland degeneration in the oviducts. The study shows that the Canadian DMV/1639 isolate can have a deleterious impact on the reproductive performance of layers irrespective of age.
Tags :
infectious bronchitis virus,layers,pathogenesis
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University of Calgary

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